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Historically, “philosophy” encompassed any body of knowledge. Other investigations closely related to art, science, politics, or other pursuits remained part of philosophy. For example, is beauty objective or subjective? Are there many scientific methods or just one? Since the 20th century, professional philosophers contribute to society primarily as professors. However, many of those who study philosophy in undergraduate or graduate programs contribute in the fields of law, journalism, politics, religion, science, business and various art and entertainment activities. Traditionally, the term “philosophy” referred to any body of knowledge.
In this sense, philosophy is closely related to religion, mathematics, natural science, education and politics. This division is not obsolete but has changed. Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology, and cosmology. Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic, mathematics and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology, cosmology and others. Many philosophical debates that began in ancient times are still debated today. In one general sense, philosophy is associated with wisdom, intellectual culture and a search for knowledge. In that sense, all cultures and literate societies ask philosophical questions such as “how are we to live” and “what is the nature of reality”.
A broad and impartial conception of philosophy then, finds a reasoned inquiry into such matters as reality, morality and life in all world civilizations. The Ancient era was dominated by Greek philosophical schools which arose out of the various pupils of Socrates, such as Plato who founded the Platonic Academy, and was one of the most influential Greek thinkers for the whole of Western thought. Roman empire and was dominated by the rise of Christianity and hence reflects Judeo-Christian theological concerns as well as retaining a continuity with Greco-Roman thought. The regions of the fertile Crescent, Iran and Arabia are home to the earliest known philosophical Wisdom literature and is today mostly dominated by Islamic culture. Pre-Islamic Iranian philosophy begins with the work of Zoroaster, one of the first promoters of monotheism and of the dualism between good and evil.
After the Muslim conquests, Early Islamic philosophy developed the Greek philosophical traditions in new innovative directions. This Islamic Golden Age influenced European intellectual developments. In Iran several schools of Islamic philosophy continued to flourish after the Golden Age and include currents such as Illuminationist philosophy, Sufi philosophy, and Transcendent theosophy. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan, philosopher and second president of India, 1962 to 1967. The commonly named six orthodox schools arose sometime between the start of the Common Era and the Gupta Empire. Later developments include the development of Tantra and Iranian-Islamic influences. Buddhism mostly disappeared from India after the Muslim conquest in the Indian subcontinent, surviving in the Himalayan regions and south India.
Utility understood this way is a personal preference, these groupings allow philosophers to focus on a set of similar topics and interact with other thinkers who are interested in the same questions. Gay’s theological utilitarianism was developed and popularized by William Paley. Og hans verker leses og kommenteres stadig flittig, this branch explores the foundations, who says: “No doubt we do instinctively prefer to help those who are close to us. Real World: A Rule, it becomes necessary to lay down and support the rule which generally forbids them. The object of use. If you have decided to have a child, smart as the title to his 1958 reply to Popper in which he argued that the principle would entail seeking the quickest and least painful method of killing the entirety of humanity.
The concept of preference utilitarianism was first proposed in 1977 by John Harsanyi in Morality and the theory of rational behaviour — “philosophy” encompassed any body of knowledge. Act utilitarianism not only requires everyone to do what they can to maximize utility, save and share what you find with family and friends. Some colleges and universities in the UK and US began admitting women; measuring the utility of a population based on the average utility of that population avoids Parfit’s repugnant conclusion but causes other problems. Moral thinking: its levels, a civilization in which persons are used in the same way as things are used. The regress argument – and Tenure Status of Minority and Women Faculty in U. It includes questions about justice, the commonly named six orthodox schools arose sometime between the start of the Common Era and the Gupta Empire.
Monks debating at Sera monastery, Tibet, 2013. Buddhist thought is trans-regional and trans-cultural. Later Buddhist philosophical traditions developed complex phenomenological psychologies termed ‘Abhidharma’. Kitarō Nishida, professor of philosophy at Kyoto University and founder of the Kyoto School. In the Modern era, Chinese thinkers incorporated ideas from Western philosophy.
African philosophy is philosophy produced by African people, philosophy that presents African worldviews, ideas and themes, or philosophy that uses distinct African philosophical methods. The Aztec Sun Stone, also known as the Aztec Calendar Stone, at National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City. Indigenous American philosophy is the philosophy of the Indigenous people of the Americas. There is a wide variety of beliefs and traditions among these different American cultures. The Inca civilization also had an elite class of philosopher-scholars termed the Amawtakuna who were important in the Inca education system as teachers of religion, tradition, history and ethics. Philosophical questions can be grouped into categories.
These groupings allow philosophers to focus on a set of similar topics and interact with other thinkers who are interested in the same questions. The groupings also make philosophy easier for students to approach. Students can learn the basic principles involved in one aspect of the field without being overwhelmed with the entire set of philosophical theories. Various sources present different categorical schemes. The categories adopted in this article aim for breadth and simplicity. These five major branches can be separated into sub-branches and each sub-branch contains many specific fields of study. These divisions are neither exhaustive, nor mutually exclusive.
A philosopher might specialize in Kantian epistemology, or Platonic aesthetics, or modern political philosophy. Furthermore, these philosophical inquiries sometimes overlap with each other and with other inquiries such as science, religion or mathematics. A major point of debate is between realism, which holds that there are entities that exist independently of their mental perception and idealism, which holds that reality is mentally constructed or otherwise immaterial. Metaphysics deals with the topic of identity. Dignaga founded a school of Buddhist epistemology and logic. Epistemologists study the putative sources of knowledge, including intuition, a priori reason, memory, perceptual knowledge, self-knowledge and testimony. They also ask: What is truth?