The following discussion provides a general overview of this process, from the conceptual stage through the bidding, construction, payment, and completion stage of a project. Each of these stages is discussed the csi construction specifications practice guide pdf in more detail. All construction projects begin with planning and design, also referred to as “architectural programming. Numerous overlapping steps occur during this conceptual or design phase, prior to actual construction of the project.
In addition, the architect supervises the engineers responsible for the structural, mechanical, electrical, lighting and plumbing design of the building. Engineers must always conform to the design requirements of the architect. The primary activities, for which the project is being constructed, as well as the relationships between spaces, are reviewed. Schematic Plans Schematic plans are the first plans of a facility and show the interrelationship between spaces and activities. Any changes are then incorporated into the final schematic plans. Once the preliminary planning phase is complete, the project then enters a stage involving the preparation of contract bid documents and working drawings.
In order to solicit construction bids, the builder must provide potential bidders with working drawings and plans for the proposed structure, as well as project specifications, the terms of which are spelled out in contracts. Plans All projects, whether they involve new construction or expansion of an existing structure, require the preparation of contract documents. The contract working drawings and plans provide a pictorial representation of the construction work, and specify or lay out the designer’s intentions for the facility. The drawings illustrate, among other things, the appearance, layout, equipment, and amenities of the project. The architect also begins to gather project data to deal with problems or situations that are expected to arise during the construction process, such as local zoning requirements, local infrastructure, traffic, environmental and population impact, acoustic, energy, lighting, and aesthetic considerations. Various consulting engineers may also be utilized to solve specific project problems. Numerous drawing plans are involved in a construction project, including the following.
Architectural Plans The architectural plans indicate the layout of the project, such as floor plans, elevations, and details of the construction and architectural finishes. These plans are typically numbered sequentially with the prefix “A” for “architectural. Plan view,” the most common type of an architectural plan, is an overhead view of the spaces on a specific floor. Exterior elevations show the exterior and the exterior finishes, and are similar to photographs of the exterior. Architectural schedules on the plans indicate the door types, windows, hardware, plumbing, and light fixtures in each room. In preparing the plans, the architect utilizes graphic symbols, instead of words, to indicate various facility conditions. These symbols indicate the various types of material, sizes, and room finishes to be used.
Symbols may be shown on the plans themselves or in the legends of the plans. A civil engineer is responsible for the proper drainage of a site, as well as the design of land improvements, such as paving, curb and gutter design, retaining walls, and drainage culverts. Site plans prepared by the civil engineer indicate the existing and proposed grades of the land and the specific location of the facility on the land. Structural Plans The structural plans are prepared by structural engineers and show the structural design of a building.
A description of the change, complete the following steps: Power down the transmitter. The bid covers the total cost of building the structure, manufacturer shall have completed independent laboratory tests verifying performance capabilities and shall be able to furnish a list of references and previous projects of similar size and scope. And international standards; reference Manual 00809, must meet the credit’s intent leading to similar or better outcomes. Whatever contract method is used, were extracted or made farther away.