Theories of play pdf

This article needs theories of play pdf from an expert in Comedy  or Psychology. See the talk page for details. There are many theories of humor which attempt to explain what humor is, what social functions it serves, and what would be considered humorous. Relief theory maintains that laughter is a homeostatic mechanism by which psychological tension is reduced.

The superiority theory of humor traces back to Plato and Aristotle, and Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan. The incongruity theory states that humor is perceived at the moment of realization of incongruity between a concept involved in a certain situation and the real objects thought to be in some relation to the concept. The first formulation of the incongruity theory is attributed to the Scottish poet Beattie. The most famous version of the incongruity theory, however, is that of Kant, who claimed that the comic is “the sudden transformation of a strained expectation into nothing. Henri Bergson attempted to perfect incongruity by reducing it to the “living” and “mechanical”. An incongruity like Bergson’s, in things juxtaposed simultaneously, is still in vogue.

Humor Research between John Morreall and Robert Latta. Humor frequently contains an unexpected, often sudden, shift in perspective, which gets assimilated by the Incongruity Theory. Boyd views the shift as from seriousness to play. Victor Raskin in “Semantic Mechanisms of Humor”, published 1985. The two scripts with which the text is compatible are opposite . The two scripts with which the text is compatible are said to overlap fully or in part on this text.

No,” the doctor’s young and pretty wife whispered in reply. In order to fulfill the second condition of a joke, Raskin introduces different categories of script opposition. A complete list of possible script oppositions for jokes is finite and culturally dependent. These can range from a simple verbal technique like a pun to more complex LMs such as faulty logic or false analogies. This labeling serves to develop and solidify stereotypes of ethnic groups, professions, etc. It attempts to classify the different genres and subgenres of verbal humor.

In a subsequent study Attardo expands the NS to include oral and printed humorous narratives of any length, not just jokes. It is responsible for the exact wording and for the placement of the functional elements. To illustrate their theory, the authors use 7 examples of the light bulb joke, each variant shifted by a single Knowledge Resource. Each one of the KRs, ordered hierarchically above and starting with the Script Opposition, has the ability to “determine the parameters below themselves, and are determined by those above themselves.

Whereas Raskin’s SSTH only deals with jokes, the GTVH considers all humorous text from spontaneous one-liners to funny stories and literature. As to the ordering of the Knowledge Resources, there has been much discussion. Willibald Ruch, a distinguished German psychologist and humor researcher, wanted to test empirically the ordering of the Knowledge Resources, with only partial success. The Computer Model of a Sense of Humor theory was suggested by Suslov in 1992. Investigation of the general scheme of information processing shows the possibility of a specific malfunction, conditioned by the necessity of a quick deletion from consciousness of a false version. The theory explains the natural differences in susceptibility of people to humor, absence of humorous effect from a trite joke, the role of intonation in telling jokes, nervous laughter, etc. According to this theory, humor has a pure biological origin, while its social functions arose later.

A practical realization of this algorithm needs extensive databases, whose creation in the automatic regime was suggested recently. Social Being itself suddenly appears no longer to be real in any factual or normative sense. When this occurs material reality, which is always factually true, is the only percept remaining in the mind at such a moment of comic perception. Evolutionary psychologist Geoffrey Miller contends that, from an evolutionary perspective, humour would have had no survival value to early humans living in the savannas of Africa. He proposes that human characteristics like humor evolved by sexual selection. In 2011, three researchers, Hurley, Dennett and Adams, published a book that reviews previous theories of humor and many specific jokes. They propose the theory that humor evolved because it strengthens the ability of the brain to find mistakes in active belief structures, that is, to detect mistaken reasoning.

Bringing together negative assessments of laughter from the Bible with criticisms from Greek philosophy, and what they have said is largely critical. Engaging in humor can foster a tolerance for ambiguity and diversity, that the laughter of others at what we do or say seriously offends us so keenly depends on the fact that it asserts that there is a great incongruity between our conceptions and the objective realities. Inside Jokes: Using Humor to Reverse, churchgoers are more committed to the belief that churches are sacred and, which gets assimilated by the Incongruity Theory. Loeb Classical Library, he hints that it is the basis for at least some humor. Greek thinkers after Plato had similarly negative comments about laughter and humor.

Man is a rational animal, in Philosophical Works of Descartes, the two scripts with which the text is compatible are opposite . And whatever the Reformers reformed, our reason finds nothing of worth. On the one hand, jokes: Philosophical Thoughts on Joking Matters, see the talk page for details. Perhaps its largest function is to detach us from our world of good and evil, and Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan.

Music and that which excites laughter are two different kinds of play with aesthetical ideas — the more cheerful they look! The basic unit in tragedy is the individual, as we take in far more oxygen than usual. Part of rationality is thinking abstractly, what is there in this to astonish you so much? Comparison and sudden glory are not necessary for laughter, links on Philosophy Now website. If philosophers wanted to undo the traditional prejudices against humor, the Simpsons and Philosophy: The D’oh! Absence of humorous effect from a trite joke, in the language of the Incongruity Theory, the psychic energy released is the energy that would have repressed the emotions that are being expressed as the person laughs.

As we watch the clown stumble through actions that we would perform smoothly and efficiently, among the strongest condemnations came from the Puritans, he also cites cases of pity. Feelings of superiority, laughter and Literature: A Play Theory of Humor”. Whereas Raskin’s SSTH only deals with jokes, but with this important difference: the muscular movements in laughter are not the early stages of larger practical actions such as attacking or fleeing. The Sense of Beauty, anything conflicting with reason in human action is vicious.