Water pollution in ghana pdf

This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the economic consequences of outdoor air pollution in the coming decades, focusing on water pollution in ghana pdf impacts on mortality, morbidity, and changes in crop yields as caused by high concentrations of pollutants. Flabber-gassed by our noxious air: can electric vehicles save us? This report provides for the first time a plausible global projection of the magnitude of the economic consequences of outdoorair pollution in absence of policy action other than those already in place. The projections thus reflect the costs of inaction of outdoor air pollution.

The OECD Environmental Outlook to 2050: Consequences of Inaction took no account of the feedbacks from environmental challenges and resource scarcity to the economy. This report seeks to address this gap through a detailed economic modelling framework that links outdoor air pollution to economic growth and welfare. Increasing economic growth and energy demand will lead to a significant increase in global emissions of air pollutants. 5 and ozone will lead to substantial effects on health and the environment. In particular, premature deaths from outdoor air pollution in 2010 amounted to around 3 million people, while they are projected to be 6-9 million in 2060. Costs related to additional health expenditures and labour productivity losses dominate in the long run. In addition, the costs of pain and suffering from illness are estimated at estimated at around USD 2.

Further degradation of the environment and natural capital can compromise prospects for future economic growth and human well-being. 2050, unless more ambitious policies are implemented. Outdoor air pollution kills more than 3 million people across the world every year, and causes health problems from asthma to heart disease for many more. This is costing societies very large amounts in terms of the value of lives lost and ill health. The analysis seeks to explain the differences in the estimates, for example across countries. To receive our latest Environment news, publications and events, sign up to MyOECD.

Outdoor air pollution kills more than 3 million people across the world every year, and causes health problems from asthma to heart disease for many more. This is costing societies very large amounts in terms of the value of lives lost and ill health. Air pollution has now become the biggest environmental cause of premature death, overtaking poor sanitation and a lack of clean drinking water. In most OECD countries, the death toll from heart and lung diseases caused by air pollution is much higher than the one from traffic accidents. The OECD has estimated that people in its 34 Member countries would be willing to pay USD 1. 7 trillion to avoid deaths caused by air pollution. Road transport is likely responsible for about half.

Air pollution in OECD countries has fallen in recent years, helped by tighter emission controls on vehicles, but it has increased in China and India as rapid growth in traffic has outpaced the adoption of tighter emission limits. The switch to more polluting diesel vehicles in many countries threatens to arrest the downward trend in emissions from road transport in OECD countries. OECD countries between 2005 and 2010. But while 20 of the 34 OECD countries achieved progress, 14 did not. OECD, or close to USD 1 trillion.

In China, the cost of the health impact of air pollution was about USD 1. 4 trillion in 2010, and about USD 0. There is insufficient evidence to estimate the share of road transport but it nonetheless represents a large burden. Remove any incentives for the purchase of diesel cars over gasoline cars. Maintain and tighten regulatory regimes, in particular, vehicle standards regimes such as those currently in place in the European Union. Make test-cycle emissions more similar to the emissions the vehicles cause under normal use.

Invest in more ambitious mitigation programmes, including improved public transport. Continue the research on the economic value of morbidity impacts of air pollution and on the specific evidence linking it to road transport. Mitigate the impact of air pollution on vulnerable groups, such as the young and the old. The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on the maps do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.

Foreword Long before the advent of modern medical care, industrialized countries decreased their levels of water-related disease through good water management. Yet, even in these countries, outbreaks of water-borne disease continue to occur, sometimes with lethal consequences. In developing countries, preventable water-related disease blights the lives of the poor. Diseases resulting from bad hygiene rank among the leading causes of ill-health. Saving Sight Trachoma can be prevented by improving sanitation, reducing the breeding sites of flies and teaching children to wash their faces with clean water. Trachoma caused by microscopic Chlamydia trachomatis remains the leading cause of preventable blindness – with an estimated 6 million people suffering loss of sight and 146 million acute cases worldwide.

Poor communities are often forced to over exploit their natural resources in order to survive. In too many cases, they are abused to such an extent that they no longer can provide for a community’s basic needs and end up posing serious health risks. However, opportunities for reversing this situation exist. Eliza Fenlas, a mother of three who lives in Inhambane, one of Mozambique’s driest provinces, spends five hours a day trekking 24 kilometres to fetch 20 litres of water.